Bioprocess and Fermentation Technology
Bioprocess is a process of obtaining our desired products either by the use of complete living cells or by their components. It involves complex living cells, organelles or enzymes as biocatalyst. Organic products can be produced by biological rather than chemical means and has many advantages and disadvantages.
· Complex molecules such as antibiotics and proteins cannot be produced by chemical means.
· Bioconversion gives higher yields.
· Biological systems operate at low temperatures and neutral pH.
· Product can be easily contaminated by foreign organisms.
· The required product will be a complex form which needs separation.
· Bioprocesses are extremely slow when compared with chemical process.
All biotechnological processes are essentially performed in a Bioreactor. Fermentation is the process of conversion of substrates to our desired products with the help of biological agents such as microorganisms. It is generally completed in two major steps. They are Upstream process and Downstream process. The upstream process is the entire process of cell isolation and cultivation to the final harvest. The Downstream process is a part of bioprocess where the cell mass from upstream are processed to meet purity and quality requirements.